The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American wide-body jet airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. After dropping its Sonic Cruiser project, Boeing announced the conventional 7E7 on January 29, 2003, focused on efficiency. The program was launched on April 26, 2004, with an order for 50 from All Nippon Airways (ANA), targeting a 2008 introduction. On July 8, 2007, the prototype was rolled out without major systems and experienced multiple delays until its maiden flight on December 15, 2009. Type certification was received in August 2011 and the first 787-8 was delivered in September 2011 before entering commercial service on October 26, 2011, with ANA.
At launch, Boeing targeted 20% less fuel burn than replaced aircraft like the Boeing 767, carrying 200 to 300 passengers on point-to-point routes up to 8,500 nmi (16,000 km), a shift from hub-and-spoke travel. The twinjet is powered by General Electric GEnx or Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 high-bypass turbofans. It is the first airliner with an airframe primarily made of composite materials and makes extensive use of electrical systems. Externally, it is recognizable by its four-window cockpit, raked wingtips, and noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles. Development and production rely increasingly on subcontractors around the world, with final assembly at Boeing South Carolina in North Charleston, after having also been assembled in the Boeing Everett Factory in Washington until March 2021.
The initial, 186 ft (57 m) long 787-8 typically seats 242 passengers over a range of 7,355 nmi (13,620 km), with a 502,500 lb (228 t) MTOW compared to 560,000 lb (254 t) for later variants. The stretched 787-9, 206 ft (63 m) long, can fly 7,635 nmi (14,140 km) with 290 passengers; it entered service on August 7, 2014, with ANA. The further stretched 787-10, 224 ft (68 m) long, seating 330 over 6,430 nmi (11,910 km), entered service with Singapore Airlines on April 3, 2018.
Early operations encountered several problems caused by its lithium-ion batteries, culminating in fires on board. In January 2013, the US FAA grounded all 787s until it approved the revised battery design in April 2013. The 787 has no fatalities and no hull losses through January 2022. As of March 2020, the 787 had orders for 1,510 aircraft from 72 identified customers. Due to ballooning production costs, Boeing has spent $32 billion on the program; estimates for the number of aircraft sales needed to break even vary between 1,300 and 2,000.
Among 787 flight systems, a key change from traditional airliners is the electrical architecture.